The Cross of Christendom.
What does Archaeology say? What do Historians and Scholars say?
Is it originally Christian or, is it originally Pagan?
When it is said, originally pagan, does it mean that the cross, whatever form/shape it comes in, is not of true Christian origin, but, eventually permitted, absorbed into Christianity, by later Church leaders who came after Christ and his Apostles?
It is the aim of this archaeological survey, to determine, if the cross (in whatever form/shape it came in) whether, is truly of pagan origin (and what this pagan origin means) or truly Christian ( and what this Christian origin means?).
What does the living Archaeological evidence produce?
Egypt and Assyria.
Babylon, Persia and Greece... have a similar track record.
Ra-Harakhte and Ament (above)
Ra-Harakhte and Ament, goddess of the West. The god is falconheaded and wears the 'SOLAR" disk encircled by a serpent on his head while the goddess wears her emblem, the hawk.
Notice what is in the right hand of Ra-Harakhte the 'cross' in the shape of the 'ankh', also you will notice above Ra-Harakhte's left hand wrist in the hieroglyph another appearance of the 'ankh' cross.
This is a fresco from the tomb of Nefertari. 19th Dynasty. 1375 BCE to 1202 BCE.
Notice the 'Solar' disk, it become prominent in association with the 'cross'.
Biblical Christianity is yet centuries away, but this freco shows the existence of this of the cross in the form of the 'ankh cross' (fresco 1375 BCE to 1202 BCE)!
The god Atum
Atum is usually identified with the sun god Ra under the name Atum-Ra, he was identified with the rising and setting of the sun (solar disk).
Again, notice the cross in his left hand (ankh cross).
Bas-releif on a stone stele from Karnak, c 1400 BCE.
Biblical Christianity is yet centuries away!
The god Sebek
Sebek, was the crocodile god. Bas-relief on the small south-western outer wall of the court of the temple of Kom Ombo where his Trinity (trias) was worshipped.
"Sebek may have been associated with fertility or death and burial before becoming a major deity and patron of kings in the Middle Kingdom (c. 1938–c. 1600? BC). He was merged with Re, the sun god, to constitute a crocodile form of that deity known as Sebek-Re. The worship of Sebek continued in Ptolemaic and Roman times." Ency Btitannica.
Again the cross (ankh cross) is to be seen in the god's left hand.
Biblical Christianity is centuries away.
The goddess Taueret
Scene from the papyrus of 'Ani'.
On the right is the goddess Hathor in the form of a cow, in the middle is the hippopotamus goddess Taueret and on the left is the hawk headed god Seker.
This is a papyrus painting. 19th Dynasty, 1375 BCE to 1202 BCE.
Again, notice what is in the left hand of the goddess Taueret (the hippopotamus goddess) a cross (ankh cross). Also to be noticed is the solar disk on the heads of the two goddesses Hathor and Taueret, cupped by horns on each of their heads.
The solar disk and the cross (what ever its form) were to play an important part in the religions of Assyria, babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome and professed "Christianity".
Biblical Christianity is still far off!
Akhenaton and Nefertiti
Akhenaton and Nefertiti, accompanied by one of their daughters, to their god Aten they offer a gift. Aten is represented by the 'Solar disk' the rays terminating in hands.
Stela of 18th Dynasty, 1580 BCE to 1350 BCE. Cairo Museum.
Notice the crosses (ankh crosses) above the noses of Akhenaton and Nefertiti and the daughter holding the cross in her elevated right hand.
The solar disk is very prominent in this scene. Notice that the rays are prominent.
Biblical Christianity is yet centuries off!
Crosses, symbols of Egypt - Artefacts
The above are just some examples to prove that the cross existed and was used as a sacred and religious object/symbol in Egypt!
But this should suffice to show that Egyptian artefacts and monuments etc exhibit the cross in the form of the 'ankh cross'. Its meaning will be brought out later.
True Biblical Christianity is yet centuries away.
Please see-'Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians: Including Their Private Life ... By John Gardner Wilkinson'
The Cross in Assyria
The Assyrian Cross (bottom right of picture-left) and the sacred tree (center). Notice the lion griffin to the left of the tree and the ibex to the right of the tree. c, *1300 BCE to 1155 BCE (British museum).
Expanded (zoomed) view of Assyrian cross.
*Some scholars suggest an earlier period, c, 1200 BCE.
This particular seal has more Assyrian characteristics than Babylonian. This is characteristic of Kassite seals, especially in later periods.
We have now moved from the Egyptian world power to the Assyrian world power.
Biblical Christianity is still centuries away, and it has been proved archaeologically that the Egyptians used a cross (ankh cross) as well as the solar disk (the solar disk would eventually used by the Greeks for the god Apollo, one of his symbols being the 'Nimbus' (halo) derived from the solar disk.
Bas relief of an Assyrian angel 8th century B.C.E.
Ancient Assyrian Cross (notice the 3-pointed tips that are derived from the lotus flower or the pomegranate bud that was used by ancient Assyrians).
It must be noted that, this style in known in the Middle East as Salib-Siryani (Slibo-Suryoyo or the Assyrian-Cross).
Notice its origin as displayed on the top of the crown (3 pointed tips making the Assyrian-Cross), worn by an Assyrian Angel, from an ancient Assyrian sculpture 8th cent. B.C.E.
Angels directed towards the cross-Angels directed towards the tree.
Note the similarity between the Syrian Orthodox Church Cross (left hand picture) and the ancient Assyrian sculpture (right hand picture) and the bas relief of the Assyrian tree of life (8th cent. B.C.E.) On the left hand picture are angels directed towards the ‘cross’. On the right hand picture we have (Assyrian) angels directed toward the tree of life (cross).
Biblical Christianity is still hundreds of years away.
King of Assyria wearing an identical cross around his neck.
The seal is a hint at and start of the forthcoming Assyrian culture. Note the cross on the kings chest. The symbol of the “Maltese” cross becomes very prominent during the Assyrian time period.
Assyrian kings are often found wearing divine symbols strung about their necks on a necklace. Often, the pendant of the king of Assyria was that of the Maltese or “radiated” cross.
The 'radiated' cross (another form of the cross, like the 'ankh' cross, is very interesting, as will be shown later!
The restoration of the Sun-god's image and temple. The British Museum
Left is a tablet from the early 9th century B.C. which depicts the Babylonian sun-god Shamash seated on the right, holding emblems of his authority, a staff and ring, and the king with two attendants on the left. In the center, on an altar, is a large 4-point sun image, with additional small wavy rays between the points.
In Hebrew, the word for sun is:
shemesh, sheh'-mesh; from an unused root meaning to be brilliant; the sun; by implication the east; fig. a ray, i.e. (arch.) a notched battlement:-- + east side (-ward), sun ([rising]), + west (-ward), window. See also H1053 in Strong's Hebrew Dictionary. Again, notice the wavy (sun) rays from the solar disk with the cross in the center. Each part of the cross ending in a tapered point!
Biblical Christianity afar off yet!
On the left is an artifact unearthed in the holy of holies of the pagan temple in the Canaanite city of Hazor / Hatzor, in northern Israel, that dates to 1400 years before the time of Christ. It is described as follows:
"a basalt offering table, pillar-shaped, with a carved symbol of the storm god Baal on its side. That symbol was a circle with a cross in the center".
Again, notice the circle of the solar disk (without rays) with the cross inside of the circle.
This very small sample of the archaeological evidence is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the 'cross'.
What I would like to do now is to show some more evidence of the various types of crosses, some of which people may have come across before.
That which is called the 'Christian' cross was originally the mystic, the sacred initial 'Tau' 'T' (Tammuz) of the Chaldeans and Egyptians. The 'T' (Tau) in ancient Hebrew is basically the same as the ancient Chaldean as found on coins of the age (The Tau Cross, is also known as the Crux Commissa). (See cross 1 below).
The true original 'T'. 'Tau":
Chaldean and Egyptian.Cross 1.
This woodcut is from 'Kitto's" Biblical Cyclopaedia, vol.1. p. 495.
Cross 2 and 3.
Etrurian and Coptic
Etrurian (left hand cross) Sir W. Betham's Etruria, vol. 1.p. 54. Coptic cross (right hand cross) Bunsen, vol. 1. p. 450.
Cross 4. The sacred Tau 'T'(cross) with the 'solar disk'.
Tammus was identified with the sun-the solar disk and therefore at times the 'T' (Tau) was inserted within the 'sun-disk' (solar disk) (cross 4 ending up, something like cross 5).
Cross 5. Solar disk with inserted cross.
The sacred 'T' (Tau) inserted within the 'solar disk'.
Extract drawing from:
Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians: Including Their Private Life ... By John Gardner Wilkinson.
See if you can spot cross (right hand colum) No 4 on the right hand colum?
Please click on the link, "Manner and customs..." (below).
Manners and customs of the ancient Egyptians: Including Their Private Life ... By John Gardner Wilkinson: ""
NB. On the right hand colum you will see part of a statue of the Pharaoh. Directly to the right of his left elbow you will see the 'T' (Tau) with the symbol of the 'solar disk' on top of it, as in cross 4 above. (Click link for a more detailed view)
When initiates were baptised into the mysteries, they were marked on their foreheads with the mark of the sacred 'T' (Tau) and was used in many ways as the most sacred symbol. In identifying 'Tammuz' the 'T' (Tau) was sometimes joined to the circle of the sun-solar disk (See cross 5).
Cross in Pre-Christian Times.
Another proof of the cross's pagan origin is found on a coin of Ptolemeus III from the year 247 - 222 BCE A well-known encyclopaedia describes the Labarum (Chi-Rho) as, "The labarum was also an emblem of the Chaldean (Babylonian) sky-god and in Christianity it was adopted..."Emperor Constantine adopted this Labarum as the imperial ensign and thereby succeeded in "uniting both divisions of his troops, pagans and Christians, in a common worship ... according to Suicer the word (labarum) came into use in the reign of Hadrian, and was probably adopted from one of the nations conquered by the Romans. "It must be remembered that Hadrian reigned in the years 76 - 138, that he was a pagan emperor, worshipped the Sun-deity Serapis when he visited Alexandria, and was vehemently anti-Judaistic, being responsible for the final near-destruction of Jerusalem in the year 130.
The Chi-Rho, as a symbol(see above), was in use long before Biblical Christianity entered the scene. The 'X' (Chi) represented the Great Fire or Sun and the P (Rho) was for Patah or Pater (Father). Also what I found of interest was the the "Labarum", because it is a composition of X and P (Chi and Rho), which means 'Sun' or 'Fire' and 'Father', rendering, 'Father Sun' or 'Great Father Sun'.
In ancient Rome the Vestal Virgins would wear the 'T' (Tau) hung from their necklaces, Nuns in the R/C church do the same today**. The Egyptians did likewise, also countless nations that had contact with the Egyptians, as the ancient Egyptian mounuments testify.
** PERE LAFITAN, Moeure des Sauvages Ameriquains, vol, I. p. 442.
The Egyptians and Chaldeans.
In order to identify the god 'T'ammuz with the sun (see cross 4 and 5) the sacred 'T' (Tau) and the 'solar disk' were used together. For example, the symbol of the 'sun' (the solar disk) was placed on top of the sacred 'T' (Tau). (See cross 4). it was also inserted within the symbol of the 'sun' (the solar disk). (See cross *5).
The cross known as the Maltese cross is an express symbol of the sun. The archaeological ruins and monuments of Egypt and ancient Chaldea bare this out. Please see pictures and other evidences in this blog.
* John Lloyd Stephens (November 28, 1805–October 13, 1852) Central America, vol II. p 344, Plate 2.
I find interesting the comments of the late Sir John Gardner Wilkinson (1797-1875). This man was well travelled and a most outstanding pioneer Egyptologist.
"The girdle was sometimes highly ornamented; men as well as women wore earrings; and they frequently had a small cross suspended to a necklace, or to the collor of their dress. The adoption of this last was not peculiar to them; it was also appended to, or figured upon, the robes of the Rot-n-no; and traces of it may be seen in the fancy ornaments of the Rebo, showing that it was already in use as early as the fifthteenth century BCE before the Christian era" # (See Cross in Pre-Christian Times, first picture-above left).
The cross was worshipped everywhere before the existence of Biblical Christianity and was worshipped as a pagan religious symbol. The Greeks called "Tammuz" "Bacchus". The "cross" was the symbol of "Tammuz" (Chaldean) or "Bacchus" (Greek). Bacchus was the Babylonian Messiah and was at times represented wearing a head band. What was peculiar about this head band, was that it was full of crosses! (
See picture (woodcut) opposite and above-right).
Although the cross is not an object of worship amongst the Buddhists, it is though an emblem amongst them. And what I found interesting, is that, the Buddhist cross is exactly the same cross that the 'Manicheans' used; it had leaves with flowers springing out of the cross. This cross would leaf, flower and sometimes bear fruit.
It was also called the sacred or divine tree (See Assyrian tree above), the tree belonging to the 'gods', the 'tree of life and knowledge'.
Here is an eye opener for Christendom's faithful:
What language does The Roman Catholic Church (and by extention the Protestant Churches) apply to the cross?
In the office of the cross, it is called the "tree of life" and the faithful are instructed to address it (the tree of life):
"Hail, O cross triumphant wood, true salvation of the world, among trees there is none like thee in leaf, flower and bud...) Cross our only hope, increase righteousnes to the godly and pardon the offences of the guilty." ****
****Review of the Epistle of Dr. Gentianus Harvet of Louvaine, p. 251, A.
In the pictures just above (5 crosses in all), The first two (top), they are of East pagan origin. The cross in the centre of the 4 crosses ids the pagan Egyprian 'ankh' cross, the two crosses at the bottom are Budhist crosses.
All of these crosses existed before Biblical Christenaty.
It would seem that the 'cross' crept into the Egyptian 'Churches' in Egypt and then into the 'African' Churches. By the middle of the 3rd century for example, the Carthaginian Church in Egypt was infected by apostasy, by way of adoption and variance of the pagan cross.
The cross was worshipped in Mexico for a long time well before Catholic missionaries set foot in the place. The missionaries were astonished to find the cross there and thought that a previous mission had contacted these people in times past. But not so! It was erected to the god of ***rain (Chaac) originally the Yucatec name of the Maya rain deity.!
***William Hickling Prescott 1796-1859 Conquest of Mexico, vol I. p. 49.
See web: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/PRESCOTT/toc.html (copy link to we browser)
Notice the crosses hanging from the necklaces of the two men and notice how the garment of the right hand man is covered in crosses (his ear also has a cross, but a bit small to see-I had to use a magnifying glass, because of the rersolution of the print). See first picture above, right hand man.
# Wilkinson, vol. I. p. 376.
The Tau cross
The Cross of Tau; also called the Tau Cross, St. Anthony's Cross, the Old Testament Cross, the Anticipatory Cross, the Cross Commissee, the Egyptian Cross, the Advent Cross, "Saint Francis's Cross" or the Crux Commissa Hence, this cross is often used during the Advent season.
As with Christianity, other ancient societies who used the "Tau" symbol also evolved its use to represent life, resurrection, reincarnation, and blood sacrifice. These crosses are rare, and only a few are left in the world, the most well known being the cross on Tory Island in County Donegal, Ireland.
The Tau Cross in christianity dates back since the latter's beginings. Today, it’s most common use is in reference to Saint Francis, who proclaimed to his fellow friars in his hometown of Assisi (Italy) that their monastic habit was the Tau Cross.
Buddhism and Hinduism existed for centuries before the existence of Biblical Christianity
In the past it was used by: the Ashanti in Africa, far removed from the Adolf's 'master' white race. The symbols are found in remains from the European Bronze Age, especially at Hissarlik (Troy). It has been found in apostate ancient Jewish synagogues, used by the Basques, French, Greeks, Swiss and Irish, the Tlingit of Alaska and the Cuna in Panama.
It is found in: China, Tibet, Japan, ancient Persia, Pakistan, and in India, where both Jains and Buddhists still use it as a religious symbol. The Mexicans, Aztecs and Indian tribes of Central and South America have used it, as have the Navajo and the Hopi tribes of the North.
In religion, it has very profound meanings for:
Northern European pagans - In Scandinavia, it was the symbol of the hammer of the god Thor.
"Christians" - A Roman pagan symbol of the four elements, four directions, and the recycling of life and death. By extension this meant life, regeneration, resurrection and everlasting life.
This pagan symbol appeared on Roman coins and also on tombs.
Early "Christians" carved it on their tombs as a symbol of everlasting life. It wasn't until the 4th century, when the Christianity of the 4th century, far removed from primitive biblical Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, that "Christians" started to use the Latin Cross as a tomb sign for everlasting life.
Hindus - use both the swastika and the suavastika to represent:
night, magic, and the destructive goddess Kali. It also represents Brahma.
The swastika represents Nirvritti, introspection and the involution of the universe, and the bliss, delight and peace of Nirvana. It is also a symbol of good fortune and blessing (Sanskrit 'su' = 'auspicious', 'astika' = 'to be'). The suavastika represents Paravritti - the expansion of the universe (Sanskrit 'para' = 'beyond', 'vritti' = 'vortex').
Jains - their seventh saint, the Jaina four-footed cross croix cramponnee and the four levels of existence.
Falun Gong - the Wheel of the Dharma.
Masons - the Mystic Cross founded by Fohi 3,000 years ago.
Esoteric philosophers - a mystical and ancient symbol.
Buddhists - resignation, the Wheel Of The Law and also a Heart Seal symbol stamped on Buddha's heart. Monks often have this symbol placed on their chest when they die.
The Suavastika Cross, also known as a Buddhist Cross, is frequently seen on temple gates and entrances, and used as a general-purpose Buddhist identifier. I found this of interest:
Ency. Britannica 2007.
"a structure, usually an upright bearing a horizontal beam. The cross was common to most cultures from prehistoric times. It is used primarily as a religious symbol, and is the principal symbol of Christianity. The cross recalls the Crucifixion of Jesus and the redeeming benefits of his Passion and death. It is thus a sign both of Jesus and of the faith of Christians. A crucifix is a representation of Jesus on the cross.
Before the Christian Era, crosses were used as religious or other symbols; a variation, the swastika, was marked on many early Christian tombs as a veiled symbol of the cross.
In the 4th century, after Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, the cross became popular in Christian art and funerary monuments. In the 20th century Roman Catholicism began emphasizing the use of crucifixes in liturgical settings. Protestant churches use the cross ornamentally and ceremonially to varying degrees. The crucifix is usually confined to private devotional use; making a sign of the cross can be an act of profession of faith, a prayer, a dedication, or a benediction. see also in index St. Andrew's Cross."
What is interesting is that the Britannica let its readers know that:
"The cross was common to most cultures from prehistoric times".
"It is used primarily as a religious symbol..."
"Before the Christian Era, crosses were used as religious or other symbols; a variation, the swastika, was marked on many early Christian tombs as a veiled symbol of the cross".
"In the 4th century, after Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, the cross became popular in Christian art and funerary monuments".
Remember that the Buddhists and others, used the 'cross' (swastika-with variation) also, the Egyptians, Assyrianns, long before the emergence of Biblical Christianity, but here we have, "...a variation, the swastika, was marked on many early Christian tombs...".
Ency. Britannica 2007 (under cross).
Some sites with interesting information on the cross: